哲學上的「矛盾」

最近看一本書:《這是什麼樣的世界》(王文方教授著)裡面對於矛盾的定義的一段小筆記

該書主要是在探討形上學議題,探討的可深可淺,淺則當作笑話看過去,深則背後隱藏著幾百本書以上的閱讀背景,裡面一個章節開始探討矛盾,首先要做的就是對矛盾的定義,我覺得日後可能會有用到這篇,所以整理放到札記裡。

「矛盾」是什麼?首先跟著書上的脈絡先說哲學的「矛盾」不是什麼:

  1. 某人倡導要正確的申報稅金卻頻頻漏開發票,這不是哲學的「矛盾」,在牆上塗上「請勿在牆上塗鴉」這也不是矛盾,此類乃「S應該做P卻做了非P」類型的事件
  2. 父母用打罵的方式希望子女體會他們的愛(引用書上),此也非哲學上的「矛盾」,此者乃「S希望P但做出了非P」的事件
  3. 兩個對象間的衝突,或利益上的不一致,比如資方和勞方,並非哲學上的「矛盾」,此者乃「S1希望P,S2希望非P」的事件
  4. 用不同角度去詮釋一個東西獲得的不一致,也非哲學上的「矛盾」,比如看到一個裝一半水的寶特瓶,可以說他有一半滿,也可以說他空了一半,此者乃「S在某個角度上是P,在某個角度上是非P」

此乃書上列舉之四種大家容易認為是「矛盾」但哲學上並不稱之為「矛盾」的例子,目前想不出第五種,如果有四種形式以外的例子歡迎在留言回覆。

哲學上的「矛盾」最初是由亞里斯多德所提出來的非矛盾律(NC)
(NC):不可能有一個事物是如此,但同一個時間和角度上看又非如此

因此可以推估哲學上的「矛盾」指的是:同一個人事物S在某一個時間某一個觀點下既是P又是非P

以上是定義部分,至於之後的討論很複雜,對於「矛盾」究竟是否存在於現實世界也有非常多種理論,我在此不是想寫書,只是看過去順便做個Review而以…以後只要無聊看書一有時間就會把看過的東西覺得有趣的用自己的字句重述一次,畢竟我認為重述不但可以練習自己寫文章的技巧,也對於文章的理解有更深刻的體會(重述一定得完全了解文章的脈絡不然是做不出來的)

很多東西我認為是可能我以後寫文章會用到的基礎,就先列出來,這就好像很多人會列出Lemma一樣,當然我列出來的不一定很重要就是…畢竟我不是大思想家。

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